Web Services is a connectivity type that depends on the World Wide Web and most commonly HTTP. Interfaces such as Single Sign-On, XDS.b (ex. C-CDA), or athenaLightning, leverage web services protocols and standards. In order to complete a Web Services connection, endpoints (URLs similar to those for API calls) from the client are needed. While these endpoints provide the destination of the data, certificates (certs) provide authentication and encryption. In order to facilitate message interoperability, headers or wrappers specified by protocol such as SOAP are found at the beginning of the payload.